Monthly Archives: January 2018

How-to Report References in APA Format

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Competitive Forces in Film Rental Business

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Strategies for gaining money on sports betting

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In this day and age, there are a lot of tools for gaining money. Many of these tools are unusual. One of such unusual approaches for ringing a register is making sports bets. In these modern days, sports staking is widespread and is available in the whole world. Nevertheless, it does not mean that it is not complicated to earn your livelihood in such a way. On the first-priority basis, you are to read more about many kinds of sport. We know for sure that there are broad-ranging strategies for making bets on sport. With this in mind, we took a resolution to help you and to give you some of them to make money.

How to make bets on sport and to make money?

  • Many people appreciate the total strategy. It is to say that it is not tough to ring a register with its help insomuch as you just have to pick the number. We advise you to focus your attention on the fact that it is a good idea to make bets in advance of the beginning of the match.
  • On the assumption that you are eager to make bets on football, there is a sense in turning attention to the time-match strategy. The point of this strategy is that you stake on some part of the game. When you stake on football, you are free to stake on the stand-off wherethrough it is an average case.
  • One of the most widely spread recipes is making bets on the finish of the match. It is not so complex to choose between two teams. That said, there is no sense in staking with low coefficients. Hence, for earning money with this method, you must stake on varied matches. You are to be sure in some of the options and some of them can be risky. On the whole, you do not risk to lose everything and have a chance to ring a register. On the other way around, you are to give heed to the fact that it is not only about the success, you are to turn attention to the games and to get acquainted with the players. This strategy for earning a livelihood is effective both for novices and great specialists.
  • You must focus your attention on the „method of corridor“. It is one of the most practical methods for all the betters. In the first place, we advise you to think about the sum of money you are able to waste. By the same token, it is a good idea to find diverse bookmakers. That is the reason why you have to pick the match you are eager to make bets on and to give money on the win and on the loss in a lot of companies. And so, you keep your money or will win plenty of money.
  • We advise you to turn attention to the method named “score”. Your assignment is to guess the score of the game. However, it is not an easy task to gain money with the aid of this approach. As it happens, great specialists recommend to stake on manifold options. To say more, we want you to check the previous matches of these teams.
  • It is not a new that express bets are widely spread across the globe. For what reason are they so widespread? They are common taking into consideration the fact that with their help people can win a lot, giving the little sums of money. In view of this, the opportunities to earn money are great and the risks are minimal.

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Productive Tips for Top Mac Cleaner That You Can Use Immediately

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Productive Tips for Top Mac Cleaner That You Can Use Immediately

The need can not be deciphered. You are ready licence clean my mac reduces and whenever you try to devote a fresh program, you’re probably having an memory issue that. You do not need a tough drive.

As its title implies there is a program utilised to make a bootable backup of your Mac disk drive. 1 major things concerning the program additionally, it is very theraputic for eliminating speech packs from programs that could occupy up space of one’s storage onto your own Computer. If you want to clean your Mac the application will probably be a really alternate that is great.

Look carefully at your website to get Microsoft along with your computer manufacturer to see whether you can find applications updates. I-OS or some device only needs to discover app for your apparatus and utilize it in actions if you should be on the lookout to get Mac. You can be assisted by A mac cleansing applications.

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Additionally, there are types of outside hard drives, from several brands. There are quite a few exceptional Mac cleaners. There really are an array of exceptional Mac cleaners.

This software will probably soon be a excellent alternative in the competition that you wish to scrub your own Mac. It’s quite incredible applications Magican’s quantity gives. It’s really incredible that the sum of software Magican gives.

The Start of Top Mac Cleaner

Then delete your YouTube snacks while still maintaining the remaining of one’s history undamaged and A far better solution is always to have a few extra steps. Make an effort if you’re satisfied about the look of the test area. This cleaner is worth your consideration inside the contest that you ought to be seeking a response that’s very and as soon as likely to create your mac healthful and indefinitely.

Using Top Mac Cleaner

Before changing a value in registry machine additionally, it is strongly recommended you simply take a backup. Avoid if you do not messing up from the registry should. It isn’t included imac registry cleaner some other type of malicious pursuits.

Before settling you could choose to use a registry cleaner. You also might choose to try a registry cleaner at the function which you may like to receive it prior to determining on. Before deciding you also may possibly decide to try a cleaner out outside.

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The Mac DVD copy programs enable one to pick that parts of the disk you will need to burn up off to a disc. The Mac DVD copiers are able to compress this content on a disk to match a blank dvd5. When you accomplish that the pc software finds any affiliated files and lists them as very well which means you may delete most these at clean my mac freeware once.

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Just restart your pc and you’re going to be prepared togo. You try to dedicate a fresh app and also you’re able to think that the functioning of somebody’s system reduces, you by using a memory issue. You try to give an program on your computer system and you are prepared to have an individu machine’s performance reduces, you employing a digital memory issue that’s non .

It makes it possible to recoup disk place to maximize system speed and efficiency. The disk cloning applications permits you to change the disc table. The disc can’t be affected utilizing this specific method.

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Normally, you also won’t ever have the ability to re-install the program which you have deleted. For example, you should make sure that your program is already up to date. For that, you ought to make certain your program is updated.

It is really as easy as that. It is not enjoyable to learn as soon as you’re looking for it most that you get yourself a bad weeks.

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From a handful clicks, then you could have a method. Just by 2 or several clicks, you may possibly have something which is clean. By only a couple clicks, then you may possibly have a platform.

If case you choose removal be certain that you abide by this directions! Clean within your computer case at least in one time annually or more with a can of compressed air that you could get from a personal computer shop. For all of us, not one of the work since the device has been washed and sat in plain water to get over half an hour.

Your printer might still be described as a crux of concern. Though a motherboard may neglect any way simply as a consequence of age or unanticipated situations it is prone in the event that you choose afew straightforward measures to fail. A couple more about clean my mac of hours could be taken by the machine cleans.

Combustion and thermal efficiencies of professional water geysers engineering essay

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The consumption of natural gas is speedily increasing and the reserves of gas will be rapidly along the way out. Pakistan is uniquely susceptible to natural gas depletion as the food cravings of the Pakistan is great and the domestic gas reserves are small. There is a strong potential for a natural gas crisis in the next to term, which is at months or a couple of years. Demand and offer ratio is not showing equilibrium, so due to these factors Pakistan is shifting swiftly towards extreme gas crisis. The natural gas is an essential fossil fuel for its significantly demand for domestic heat purposes, as raw materials in fertilizer factories and as a source of fuel in a variety of types of furnaces in commercial units. Keeping the value of gas alive it is needed to utilize it as wisely as possible.

Figure1.1 Energy consumption of Pakistan

The importance of gas could be well understood from the figure above as it makes up about the major energy source for the country, almost fifty percent of the country’s have is fulfilled with the help of gas. Sector wise gas consumption is: Power (30.56%), fertilizer (8.27%), cement sector (0.49%), general industry (20.58%), domestic (24.11%), commercial (4.2%) and Transport (CNG; 11.8%).

Figure 1.2 Sector wise natural gas consumption in Pakistan

As the use of gas in countries like Pakistan is normally strongly season dependant, however in winters roughly water heat takes around one third of total gas domestic intake. The domestic equipment such as geysers using gas as heating origin are either ill-equipped with controlling units or inefficient because of ill-design especially in respect of burner design and style and temperature transfer phenomena involved. Due to these designing faults gas utilization and thus gas billing rises at unpredicted rates.

Today’s homes demand additional hot water than ever before and conventional drinking water geysers offer unparalleled degrees of performance to meet the necessity. In conventional geysers heating is being shed in flue gas, incomplete combustion and casing losses. Bigger stack draft and uncontrolled more excess air in the traditional water geysers results in the increased loss of temperature in the stack. Experimental measurements display that the stack temperature is in the number of 200-240 0C. The uncontrolled excess air flow results in high O2 about 16 % and low CO2 (2%) in the flue gases. Because of these effects conventional drinking water geysers have lower efficiencies.

So the objective of this research function was to modify conventional geysers to ensure that it’s the most advantageous compared to conventionally used normal water geyser because of the fewer gas and time intake. In the light of gas crisis, such gas efficient kitchen appliances are strongly needed to reduce the gap between gas source and demand. A competent baffle is installed in the altered geyser that benefits in low losses of high temperature in the stack and decreases the temp of stack gases substantially. The designed baffles reduces excess air and produce extra CO2 in the flue gas as a result enhances the combustion efficiency. Thermal efficiency of water geyser is enhanced due to better temperature exchange between mediums.

With proposed internal adjustments of the geyser and inclusion of a baffle, the combustion & thermal efficiencies and throughput could be substantially improved.


Higher stack draft and uncontrolled extra excess air in the conventional water geysers benefits in the increased loss of temperature in the stack. Experimental measurements demonstrate the stack temperature in the number of 200-240 0C. The uncontrolled excess surroundings results in high O2 about 16 % and low CO2 (2%) in the flue gases. Because of these effects conventional normal water geysers contain lower efficiencies, so the purpose here is to increase the combustion and thermal performance of commercial water geyser

To study the result of

Various baffle designs so that you can improve thermal efficiency by increasing inside heat range, reducing draft and increasing turbulence.

Various baffle designs to boost combustion efficiency due to decreased excess air amounts by reducing draft

BChapter No. 2


2.1 What’s geyser

Appliances that are being used to supply warm water continuously are referred to as water geysers. Mostly hot water is employed domestically for various needs, so these devices may also be referred to as domestic gas water geysers.

heating resources in such appliances could be different such as natural gas, electricity, essential oil, solar radiations. But this study work is focused on gas normal water geysers. Gas geysers can be found in selection of types and sizes. The the one which is trusted in countries like Pakistan is normally storage space water geysers.

2.2 Composition OF GAS GEYSERS

Following will be the major component of the gas geysers and some safety features.

Figure 2.1 Schematic diagram of gas geyser


Gas water geysers basically consist of a steel container with atmospheric burner at the bottom of the water storage area tank. Air entering in the burners can be categorized into two types, primary and secondary. Main air is the the one which is released into burner with gas. Secondary air is added to aid primary oxygen in better

combustion. In gas fired devices, primary air and fuel mixing occurs within the mixing area. Mix is then blended with secondary oxygen that ensures to some extent a good combustion. Mixture then would go to burner port to provide flame.

Figure 2.2 Atmospheric gas burner

Flue gas exhaust pipe

Natural gas acts as a petrol for the drinking water heating combines with atmosphere to give combustion products known as flue gases. These flue gases go through exhaust pipe and so are emitted to the ambiance. Flue gas exhaust pipe has two main functions.

To exit the gases from burner

Serves as heating medium for cool water by transferring its warmth.

Cold Water Inlet Pipe

The water that’s to get heated enters in the bottom of the geyser with the aid of a long pipe. The purpose to help make the pipe long more than enough is to greatly help direct the cold water at the lower part of the geyser to avoid mixing of cool and hot water.

Hot water Outlet Pipe

This pipe exists at the top of the water geysers. Hot water on warming up rises because of thermosyphon effect and is normally discharged from the very best of the geyser for intake.

Anode Rod

Wherever the prolong make use of water is there, likelihood of corrosion are maximal over there. So in order to keep the body of the geyser safe from corrosive results, a metal rod is added that is mostly made of extra reactive metals (Al, Mg) than that of the container metal. Because of it corrosion damages the rod simply rather than the whole system

Safety valve

If thermostat systems are faulty due to any reason, then it could happen that temperature could become extremely high that benefits in pressure increase at unsafe limits. So to avoid any sort of accident this valve is employed in water geysers.


This device is used to create the temperature of drinking water at a fixed value. It permits the burner to switch off when the water temperature reaches at the required point.

Drain Valve

Scaling or sludge formation could occur due the occurrence of sediments in the storage tank that might be problematic if the geyser is not well maintained. By using drain valve this problem can be avoided by draining the sediments. It also gives drinking water of better quality and escalates the life of geyser.

2.3 Proficiency OF WATER GEYSERS:

The efficiencies of normal water geysers discussed in this particular research work are

Combustion Efficiency

Thermal Efficiency

Combustion efficiency:

Combustion efficiency means how successfully a gasoline gives its energy. In other words combustion efficiency depicts the capability of burner to provide heat.

Combustion is basically the oxidation of gas that outcomes in CO2, H2O, Sox, NOx, CO, unburnt fuel or air era. An excellent combustion must bring about less volume of unburnt fuel and really should operate at optimum surplus air.

Figure 2.3 combustion phenomena

There will be two types of combustion proficiency (i) net combustion efficiency (ii) gross combustion efficiency

Net combustion efficiency

In net combustion efficiency estimation energy losses due to the presence of normal water molecule in the flue gases is normally recovered and latent strength loss term isn’t included.

Gross combustion efficiency

In these calculations latent strength loss term is roofed in combustion proficiency estimation.

Thermal efficiency

Thermal efficiency or strength factor may be the indication of heat transfer fee to the cold method with the help of heat exchange surfaces.

It could be defined in conditions of geyser as the ratio of heat given out by the geyser to the full total energy employed by the water.

2.4 Factors impacting combustion and thermal efficiencies

The following will be the key factors for understanding efficiency

Stack temperature

Fuel specification

Excess air

Radiation and convection losses

Incomplete combustion

Stack draft

Stack temperature

The temperature of which products of combustion (flue gases) leave the stack is known as flue temperature. A process is considered to be thermally useful if these gases exit at low heat. As the discharge of flue gases at very high temperature effects in the wastage of warmth, otherwise that could be utilized in heating up the water. So therefore of this inefficiency in heat usage larger amount of energy is necessary for water heating. [1] reports that energy utilization could be reduced by 1% if the exit temp of flue gases can be lowered by 25 0C. But there is a particular limit up to which stack heat range could possibly be decreased i-e dew stage of exhaust gases. Below the dew level of flue gases, vapors start out condensing that cause corrosion of geyser .Decreasing exit temperatures of flue gases also results in improved thermal efficiency, with reduced fuel intake. One percent of efficiency is enhanced by lowering 35 to 40 0F [2]

Fuel specification

The composition of fuel can have a crucial effect on the efficiency of the geyser. Gasoline containing bigger contents of H2 molecules or H2O molecules is known as to be inefficient. It is because water molecules consider up latent warmth from the sizzling flue gases so that you can remain in vaporous state. The utilization of latent energy by the drinking water molecules causes the wastage of warmth because of cooling of exhaust gases.[2]

Excess air

Amount of air in excess of that required for complete combustion is called excess air. Extra atmosphere is added in to the combustion process to be able to attain comprehensive combustion. According to [2] maintaining the surplus air at optimum amounts may be the first and foremost part of making the heating, effective and avoiding energy losses. Excess weather makes the procedure inefficient with regards to combustion and thermal by

stealing the heat that could otherwise be used in heating up the water. An excellent burner is one that uses 15% air excessively. Decreasing the excess weather by 15% enhances the heating efficiency by 1% [4] . The same observation is quoted by [3] that geyser efficiency is boosted upto 2.5% if the surplus O2 level is reduced by 1%.

Radiation and convection losses

Radiation and convection losses symbolize the heat losses from your body of geyser. These losses could be minimized by insulating these devices.

Incomplete combustion

Unburned fuel and formation of CO can be an indication of incomplete combustion. Incomplete combustion occurs when

There has ended excessive or too little fuel is available for combustion

Air is not present in sufficient amount.

Inadequate turbulence of oxygen and fuel before burning.

As the following figure indicates a very perfect sum of air gives ideal combustion. Excess air benefits in very good combustion and too much or too little atmosphere gives incomplete combustion. Too much extra air gives massive amount inerts N2 and it requires away the energy of flue gases in warming up. As suggested by [2], formation of 1 CO molecule effects in 70% less temperature generation compared to the CO2 molecule.

Figure 2.4 Comparison of combustion processes


Efficiency standards reflect lowest values of efficiency that water heaters (geysers) must exhibit in order to be implemented. Even the water geyser suppliers in USA are required to produce their devices with the minimum energy factor shown in table 1, by federal regulation [5]

Table 2.1 Energy effectiveness restrictions for U.S drinking water heaters

Energy star standards for the globally water geysers is offered in the body 2.5

Figure 2.5 Energy celebrity criteria for water heaters

A 40 gallon (150 liters) gas water geysers exhibits energy factor in the number of 0.42 to 0.8 and almost all of the geysers run at energy factor less than 0.65. [5]

The operating phenomena of boilers will be almost identical to those of normal water geysers. Table 2.2 signifies the combustion efficiencies of four several types

Table 2.2 combustion efficiencies of different types of boilers


Combustion and thermal efficiencies could be improved by making use of 3 T`s. great combustion happens when the three key criterias are fulfilled.[6]




Time: Increasing the quantity of period flue gases are connection with cold medium also increases the period of time for heat transfer to occur.

Temperature: As the temp difference between the source of heat and the materials being heated increases, so does the level of heat transfer.

Turbulence: Agitation of flue gases in a temperature exchanger serves to provide a continual circulation of hotter flue gases in touch with the heat exchanger surfaces.

As it is already described before that combustion gases rises from the burner that is placed in the bottom of the water storage space container through a flue pipe located at the center of the water container. Flue gases produced therefore of combustion response passes through the stack at high temperatures (2300 0F). These growing gases due to their high temperature transfer heating by radiation and convection to the stack surfaces on the cooler warmth exchanging surfaces and the phenomena of conduction transfers high temperature within the body of water [7].

Heat transfer by convection can be augmented by increasing mixing or turbulence of the flue gases. Mostly used way for this purpose is to boost the heat transfer surface to increase convective heat transfer. A study work done in this respect ( to improve heat transfer) concluded that enhanced heat transfer is because of increased turbulence that subsequently heightens pressure drop of the flue gases due to increase in friction factor. Using heating transfer enhancement equipment causes a rise in heating transfer coefficient. The final suggested enhancement machine suggested in this work was a type of twisted tape baffle . [7]

Baffles help get increased temperature transfer by directing sizzling flue gases [8]. Another report shows that water geyser`s efficiency could be enhanced by insulating the geyser and in addition by using baffles in flue pipe [5]

Enhanced pressure drop across flue gases due to upsurge in turbulence.

More period flue gases remain in contact with cold medium

Flow of draft is definitely effected by using flue baffles because it restricts move of combustion gases [8] poor fuel efficiencies can be corrected with the help of control in draft [6]

The improved high temperature transfer leads to a rise in the thermal productivity of the water heater [7]

Increasing thermal efficiency likewise reduces environmental emissions such as for example NOx , CO and hydrocarbons. [9]

[11] studied various aspects and factors related to heat transfer productivity in water geysers. After relating velocity of gases, twisted tape baffles and area emissivities, to heat transfer modes such as for example convection and radiation, it had been concluded that heat transfer efficiencies are increased 50% with flue baffling in comparison with the empty flue pipe

Mostly normal water geysers are actually [7] manufactured with a flat plate type baffle in it that augments the heat transfer rate from scorching gases towards the flue pipe wall. But various studies suggest that using modified formed baffles thermal and combustion efficiencies could even more be enhanced. Heating productivity is highly dependant upon the geometry and design of the baffle.

[10] quotes that through the use of spikes on the exterior side of baffles increases heat transfer are and consequently enhances heat transfer performance of flue gases towards drinking water.

Various configurations of baffles include different thermal efficiencies. It is usually augmented by upsurge in heat exchanger area. But increase in thermal efficiency has a limiting stage. This limiting point is the dew level of the combustion gases. Temp of the flue gases should be always greater than the dew point of gases. The condensation of water vapors within flue gases could cause corrosion problems. So to avoid such problems thermal efficiency is limited up to 82 %[7]

Chapter No. 3



Accordingly, an experimental rig was engineered and constructed for this purpose .The Water geyser employed for experimentation can be domestic water geyser supplied by "Amber" and shown in figure 3.1. It is of 35 gallons capability and has gas and water collection. A burner is put at the bottom of the water container. Combustion gases produced as a result of losing rises through a stack. This stack is extended by attaching it with a exhaust pipe and a hole has been converted to it for the gain access to of flue gas analyzer probe. These gases on growing above gets hotter the water present in the storage tank. Drinking water enters into this geyser by using a dip tube put at the top of the geyser. And warm water is withdrawn from the most notable of the geyser because it rises because of thermosyphon effect.

Figure 3.1 Gas geyser (experimental rig)


Digital flue gas analyzer (TESTO M/XL. Testo 454) displayed in physique 3.2 was used to analyze the flue gases. This analysis includes concentration of various gases in flue gas, flue gas temp, and ambient temp and through the use of these parameters it could calculate other elements like net and gross combustion efficiencies, dew level, and draft. Flue gas analyzer uses electrochemical measuring cells for the O2, CO, NO, Simply no2 and SO2 parameters

Figure 3.2 Digital flue gas analyzer


As it really is already discussed that heat transfer can be increased by raising three elements, time, turbulence and temperatures. This is what is performed in this experimentation by positioning a baffle in the exhaust pipe of the normal water geyser. Insertion of baffle augments the thermal in addition to combustion functionality of the geyser. Baffles used in this research job are of four types

Flat stripped baffle( first baffle)

Conical baffle

Finned baffle

Barbed razor baffle

It was investigated in the study work that which baffle is better in increasing the thermal and combustion efficiencies of water geyser. The baffles analyzed were made of iron and is definitely sown in statistics below flat stripped baffle (figure 3.3), conical baffle (figure 3.4) finned baffle (figure 3.5) and barbed razor baffle (figure 3.6).

Figure 3.3 Flat stripped baffle

Figure 3.4 conical baffle

Figure 3.5 Finned baffle

Figure 3.6 Barbed razor baffle

Cross sectional check out of the geyser after baffle insertion is certainly shown in fig 3.7

Figure 3.7 Cross sectional watch of geyser with baffle

Figure 3.8 Schematic diagram of finned baffle

Figure 3.9 Schematic diagram of barbed razor wire baffle


After the precise characterization of the geyser it had been made a decision to first study the mechanism of warmth transfer phenomena involved to improve its heating efficiency. For starters geyser was filled up properly with water. Drinking water and ambient temperatures were noted down. As well starting values of gas and time were also noted to find out the total gas consumed and period required heating up one batch of normal water up to required temp. After beginning the gas burner water is permitted to heat up. Aftereffect of various baffle patterns were examined on thermal productivity and combustion proficiency of water geyser. During each one of these experiments flue gas had been analyzed applying flue gas analyzer and by the end final water temperature, final gas studying and ending period were used to measure.

Figure 3.10 Methodology of experimentation

Chapter No. 4


The present analysis, reports the effect of inclusion of numerous baffles of different kinds on the combustion and thermal efficiency of water geyser that were placed in the stack pipe of geyser. The experiments had been completed in the laboratory of Chemical Engineering Division, U.E.T Lahore.


Thermal efficiency is in fact the ratio of temperature absorbed by drinking water to the heat released by gas. It actually dictates that how very well heat released by gasoline is consumed in heating up the water. The formulation used for thermal efficiency is

Thermal performance = m x Cp x ( Tout – Tin) ……… equation 1

V x Hv


m = Mass of drinking water, kg

Cp = Specific temperature of normal water, J/Kg Гў-В¦C = 4.184 KJ/Kg Гў-В¦C

Tout = Outlet water temperature, Гў-В¦C

Tin = Inlet water temperatures, Гў-В¦C

ΔT = Transformation in heat, Гў-В¦C = Tout – Tin

V = Level of gas consumed in heating up 1 batch of water, m3

Hv = heating value of natural gas KJ/m3

All the calculations of the research work is founded on one batch of geyser and the water geyser used is definitely of 35 gallons capacity. So as to determine mass of the drinking water following formula was used

m = Vw x ρ ……Equation 2

m = Mass of drinking water, kg

Vw = volume of water used, m3


density of normal water, m3/kg


Combustion efficiency is actually the burning ability of fuel and is usually calculated by subtracting dry out flue gas loss, unburnt fuel reduction and latent heat loss. Dry flue gas loss is actually due to the flue gases leaving at very higher temperature that could otherwise be used in warming up the water. Unburnt gasoline loss is the loss due to very high excess air amounts that consumes the heat that could be used otherwise in heating up the drinking water. And latent heat loss may be the loss of heat that occurs due to the occurrence of moisture in the petrol that consumes large amount of heat in vaporizing the water molecule.

General formulas for gross and net combustion efficiencies are shown below

EffG = 100 – (Dry flue gas damage + Wet Losses/ Latent Heat Losses) -Unburnt Fuel Loss

EffN = 100 – Dry flue gas damage – Unburnt Fuel Loss

While the formulas used for the calculations are

…….. Equation 3, 4


Qgr = gross calorific value

Qnet = net calorific value

CO = % content material of carbon monoxide in flue gas

CO2 = % content of skin tightening and in flue gas

K1 = constant for gas (32)

Kgr = % of carbon in fuel / Qgr

Knet = % of carbon in fuel / Qnet

FT = flue gas temperature

AT = ambient temperature

X = MH2O + 9 H

MH2O = Moisture content material of natural gas

H = hydrogen content material of natural gas


Recovery rate may be the amount of gallons of water the geyser can boost in temperature by a particular amount of degrees Celsius in one hour. In this particular research work the recovery price is taken as quantity of drinking water in gallons that may be heated to 55 0C in 1 hr.

To find the recovery rate of drinking water geyser for each of the baffle, numbers of experiments were performed, where 12 gallons of normal water was taken as basis and enough time taken by drinking water geyser to heat up up anywhere near this much amount of drinking water up to 55 0C was noted for each and every baffle. Through the use of unitary method recovery rate was calculated


35 a few minutes were consumed to heat up = 12 gallons

60 a few minutes were consumed to heat up = 20.6 gallons


30 a few minutes were consumed to heat up up = 12 gallons

60 moments were consumed to heating up = 24 gallons


28 a few minutes were consumed to heat up = 12 gallons

60 moments were consumed to heat up = 25.7 gallons


26 moments were consumed to heating up = 12 gallons

60 minutes were consumed to heat up = 27.7 gallons


25 minutes were consumed to heat up = 12 gallons

60 mins were consumed to heat up up = 29 gallons


Stack draft refers to the pressure difference that causes the movement of flue gases within the stack in upward path. Flue gases when heated include lower density, consequently of it they surge in upward route and bottom of the stack possess lower pressure as compared with the ambient pressure. This difference in pressure causes the movement of flue gases inside the stack.

For efficient normal water heating, reduction in stack draft is very necessary so that the flue gases can stay in contact with water to come to be heated for longer period. Stack draft would depend upon (i) elevation of the stack (ii) temperature of outside atmosphere (iii) heat range of flue gases (iv) density of flue gases. The formula used to calculate stack draft is

∆P = (PM/R) [ 1/T2 – 1/T1] g h …………….. Equation 5


∆P = Pressure difference, in H2O

P = atmospheric pressure, psi= 14.7 psi

R = ideal gas constant, psi ft3 lbmol-1 R-1 = 10.73 psi ft3 lbmol-1 R-1

T2 = temperatures of flue gases, R

T1 = Temp of ambient oxygen, R = 557 R

g= acceleration because of gravity, ft/s2 = 32.2 ft/s2

h = elevation of stack, ft = 4 ft

4.5 COMPARISON OF FLUE GAS Research OF UNBAFFLED conventional geyser and geysers with crafted baffles through the use of flue gas analyzer:

Geyser Without Baffle

Figure 4.1 Geyser without baffle

Fuel: Natural Gas

16.88 % Oxygen

20 ppm CO

2.33 % CO2

9 ppm NO

0.6 ppm NO2

172.8 Гў-В¦C Flue temp.

10 ppm NOx

0 ppm SO2

6 ppm H2

0 ppm CxHy

74.1 %Eff N

67.4 % Eff G

0.0008 Rati.

30.4 Гў-В¦C Amb. temp.

29.9 Гў-В¦C Device temp.

37.0 Гў-В¦C Dewpoint

1.09 l/m Pump flow

3.0 % O2ref

11.9 % CO2max

—— kg/h Mass. Flow CO

—— kg/h Mass. Flow SO2

—— kg/h Mass. Flow NOx


Heat Carrier te: —— Гў-В¦C


Geyser WITH UNIQUE Baffle

Figure 4.2 Geyser with original baffle

Fuel: Natural Gas

15.22 % Oxygen

20 ppm CO

3.28 % CO2

10 ppm NO

3.8 ppm Not any2

146.5 Гў-В¦C Flue temp.

14 ppm NOx

0 ppm SO2

6 ppm H2

0 ppm CxHy

85.1 %Eff N

77.3 % Eff G

0.0006 Rati.

36.0 Гў-В¦C Amb. temp.

39.5 Гў-В¦C Machine temp.

41.1 Гў-В¦C Dewpoint

1.09 l/m Pump flow

3.0 % O2ref

11.9 % CO2max

—— kg/h Mass. Flow CO

—— kg/h Mass. Flow SO2

—— kg/h Mass. Flow NOx


Heat Carrier te: —— Гў-В¦C

4.5.3 Geyser with Conical Baffle

Figure 4.3 Geyser with conical baffle

Fuel: Natural Gas

13.00 % Oxygen

3 ppm CO

4.53 % CO2

14 ppm NO

0.8 ppm NO2

80.2 Гў-В¦C Flue temp.

15 ppm NOx

0 ppm SO2

11 ppm H2

0 ppm CxHy

94.3 %Eff N

85.5 % Eff G

0.0000 Rati.

27.9 Гў-В¦C Amb. temp.

28.7 Гў-В¦C Product temp.

45.5 Гў-В¦C Dewpoint

1.23 l/m Pump flow

3.0 % O2ref

11.9 % CO2max

—— kg/h Mass. Flow CO

—— kg/h Mass. Flow SO2

—— kg/h Mass. Flow NOx


Heat Carrier te: —— Гў-В¦C


4.5.4 Geyser with Finned Baffle

Figure 4.4 Geyser with finned baffle

Fuel: Natural Gas

10.43 % Oxygen

5 ppm CO

5.99 % CO2

19 ppm NO

1.8 ppm Not any2

64.5 Гў-В¦C Flue temp.

21 ppm NOx

1 ppm SO2

5 ppm H2

0 ppm CxHy

97.1 %Eff N

88.0 % Eff G

0.0000 Rati.

34.0 Гў-В¦C Amb. temp.

36.3 Гў-В¦C Device temp.

49.6 Гў-В¦C Dewpoint

1.09 l/m Pump flow

3.0 % O2ref

11.9 % CO2max

—— kg/h Mass. Flow CO

—— kg/h Mass. Flow SO2

—— kg/h Mass. Flow NOx


Heat Carrier te: —— Гў-В¦C

4.5.5 Geyser with Cylindrical Baffle with barbed razor

Figure 4.5 Geyser with barbed razor baffle

Fuel: Natural Gas

9.44 % Oxygen

24 ppm CO

6.55 % CO2

25 ppm NO

2.8 ppm Not any2

52.1 Гў-В¦C Flue temp.

28 ppm NOx

0 ppm SO2

7 ppm H2

0 ppm CxHy

97.2 %Eff N

88.1 % Eff G

0.0004 Rati.

22.7 Гў-В¦C Amb. temp.

22.4 Гў-В¦C Machine temp.

51.0 Гў-В¦C Dewpoint

1.23 l/m Pump flow

3.0 % O2ref

11.9 % CO2max

—— kg/h Mass. Flow CO

—— kg/h Mass. Flow SO2

—— kg/h Mass. Flow NOx


Heat Carrier te: —— Гў-В¦C

4.6 Gas intake comparison of different baffles

Consumption of gas for heat 1 batch of water (35 gallons) was found by noting the original and final values of gas meter attached with the experimental rig. The difference of the values gave the total level of gas consumed. The following table shows the quantity of gas consumed for unbaffled and different configurations of baffles

Type of baffle

Gas used (m3)



Original Baffle


Conical Baffle


Cylindrical Baffle with fins


Cylindrical baffle with barbed razor


Table 4.1 Gas consumption comparison of different baffles

Figure 4.6 displays the graphical style of gas consumed for heating system 1 batch of drinking water using various baffle designs

Figure 4.6 Assessment of gas consumption through the use of different baffles

4.7 Time consumption comparison of different baffles

Consumption of time for heat 1 batch of water (35 gallons) was observed by noting the initial and final values of time. The difference of these values gave the total time consumed. The following table shows the total time consumed for heating unbaffled and various configurations of baffled geyser

Type of baffle

Time consumed (hr)



Original Baffle


Conical Baffle


Cylindrical Baffle with fins


Cylindrical baffle with barbed razor


Table 4.2 Time intake comparison of different baffles

Figure 4.7 Comparison of time consumption by using different baffles

4.8 Exhaust temperature comparison of different baffles

Type of baffle

Flue Gas Temperature Range


Average Flue Gas Temperature





Original Baffle



Conical Baffle testmyprep



Cylindrical Baffle with fins



Cylindrical baffle with barbed razor



Table 4.3 Exhaust temp comparison of different baffles

Figure 4.8 Evaluation of exhaust temperature by using different baffles

4.9 Thermal Productivity comparison of different baffles

Type of baffle

Gas used (m3)

Thermal efficiency





Original Baffle



Conical Baffle



Cylindrical Baffle with fins



Cylindrical baffle with barbed razor



Table 4.4 Thermal productivity comparison of different baffles

Figure 4.9 Evaluation of thermal efficiencies by using different baffles

4.10 Combustion Performance comparison of different baffles

Type of baffle

Combustion Efficiency




Original Baffle


Conical Baffle


Cylindrical Baffle with fins


Cylindrical baffle with barbed razor


Table 4.5 Combustion productivity comparison of different baffles

Figure 4.10 Comparison of combustion efficiencies by using different baffles

4.11 Recovery level comparison of different baffles

Type of baffle

Recovery Rate




Original Baffle


Conical Baffle


Cylindrical Baffle with fins


Cylindrical baffle with barbed razor


Table 4.6 Recovery level comparison of different baffles

Figure 4.11 Comparison of recovery rate by using different baffles

4.12 Draft comparison of different baffles

Type of baffle

Draft *

(in H2O)



Original Baffle


Conical Baffle


Cylindrical Baffle with fins


Cylindrical baffle with barbed razor


*From equation

Table 4.7 Draft comparison of different baffles

Figure 4.12 Comparison of draft evaluation of different baffles

4.13 Gas cost savings comparison of different baffles

Type of baffle

Gas savings




Original Baffle


Conical Baffle


Cylindrical Baffle with fins


Cylindrical baffle with barbed razor


Table 4.8 Gas savings comparison of different baffles

Figure 4.12 Comparison of gas savings through the use of different baffles

Chapter No. 5



Main goal of this analysis was the improvement of combustion and thermal efficiencies of water geysers using different baffle designs. Because of utilization of these baffles a drastic transformation in different conditions were noticed. It resulted reduction in flue gases exhaust temperature, reduction in draft, increased turbulence, much less gas and time intake. Etc the whole summarizing the work, usage of these baffles resulted upsurge in combustion and thermal efficiencies.

After examining baffles of different sizes and shapes it is figured barbed razor cable baffle gave the most effective results regarding time and gas consumption, draft reduction, exhaust heat range, combustion and thermal efficiencies

Barbed razor cable baffle keeps 88% combustion efficiency in comparison with 67.4 % of standard geyser.

Barbed razor wire baffle keeps 68% thermal efficiency as compared with the 35% of conventional water geysers

Using Barbed razor cable baffle, geyser consumes less time (30-40%) to fully heat up the normal water up to the mandatory temperature compared to the conventional geyser.

Less gas consumption (40-50%) which will reduce energy billing because of the utilization of Barbed razor cable baffle.

Low exhaust temperature allows venting of gases within an economical and easier way.

Less heat losses when compared with conventional water geyser because it overcomes the condition of incomplete combustion


In future several aspects may be considered:

Further research should be carried out on the design of the burner positioned in the bottom of the water geyser to further increase the combustion efficiency of normal water geyser

Controlling the air energy ratio by specifying the amount of air flow inlet to the burner will also be helpful in increasing the combustion efficiency to larger extent.

Further research should be carried out on the modification of geyser composition by replacing one bigger flue gases exhaust pipe with four several small exhaust pipes so that you can enhance thermal effectiveness of geyser because of upsurge in heat transfer.